Perched on a plateau almost 350 metres high, Escalaplano is surrounded by the valleys of the rivers Flumendosa and Flumineddu, in a fertile area cultivated with fruit and olive trees, covered by forests of cork oaks. With 2,200 inhabitants in the historical region of Gerrei, Escalaplano is the last of the southern Sardinia provinces heading towards the Ogliastra border. The favourable position has allowed the area to be frequented since prehistoric times, with the earliest remnants being Domus de Janas, nuraghe and well temples. In a Spanish document from the mid-14th century, Escalaplano is mentioned as a newly-established town not yet subjected to taxation. According to legend, the village was located in Is Arantas, called Escall'e oru (golden stairway). It later transferred to the plateau, Su Pranu, and named Villanova de Scala de Plan, with reference to the long access road to the plateau. It was first controlled by the Carroz family, then passed to the duchy of Mandas.